The Reagan Plan
Unknown to Israel, the Reagan administration was preparing a new
diplomatic initiative for the Middle East, designed to renew the peace process,
deal with the Palestinian issue, improve Israel-Egypt relations and provide
impetus for Jordan to join the peace process. It was also aimed at pleasing
those Arab states who had accepted P. L. 0. evacuees from Beirut and signaling
them that the U.S. was not satisfied solely with their departure from Beirut,
but was seeking an overall solution. Israel alone was not involved in the new
American thinking, and learned of the plan when Ambassador Lewis showed it to
Prime Minister Begin who was vacationing in Nahariya. Begin's reaction was: "It
is the saddest day of my life" He was determined to reject the plan as not being
even a basis for negotiations. Text of the Reagan address follows:
Today has been a day that should make all of us proud. It marked the end of the
successful evacuation of the P.L.O. from Beirut, Lebanon. This peaceful step
could never have been taken without the good offices of the United States and,
especially, the truly heroic work of a great American diplomat, Philip Habib.
Thanks to his efforts I am happy to announce that the U.S. Marine contingent
helping to supervise the evacuation has accomplished its mission.
Our young men should be out of Lebanon within two weeks. They, too, have served
the cause of peace with distinction and we can all be very proud of them.
But the situation in Lebanon is only part of the overall problem of the conflict
in the Middle East. So, over the past two weeks, while events in Beirut
dominated the front page, America was engaged in a quiet, behind-the-scenes
effort to lay the groundwork for a broader peace in the region.
For once, there were no premature leaks as U.S. diplomatic missions traveled to
Mid-East capitals and I met here at home with a wide range of experts to map out
an American peace initiative for the long-suffering peoples of the Middle East,
Arab and Israeli alike.
It seemed to me that, with the agreement in Lebanon, we had an opportunity for a
more far-reaching peace effort in the region - and I was determined to seize
that moment. In the words of the scripture, the time had come to "follow after
the things which make for peace."
Tonight, I want to report to you on the steps we have taken, and the prospects
they can open up for a just and lasting peace in the Middle East.
America has long been committed to bringing peace to this troubled region. For
more than a generation, successive U.S. administrations have endeavoured to
develop a fair and workable process that could lead to a true and lasting
Arab-Israeli peace. Our involvement in the search for Mid-East peace is not a
matter of preference; it is a moral imperative. The- strategic importance of the
region to the U.S. is well known.
But our policy is motivated by more than strategic interests. We also have an
irreversible commitment to the survival and territorial integrity of friendly
states. Nor can we ignore the fact that the wellbeing of much of the world's
economy is tied to stability in the strife-torn Middle East. Finally, our
traditional humanitarian concerns dictate a continuing effort to peacefully
When our administration assumed office in January 1981, 1 decided that the
general framework for our Middle East policy should follow the broad guidelines
laid down by my predecessors.
There were two basic issues we had to address: First, there was the strategic
threat Lebanese to rebuild their war-torn country. We owe it to ourselves and to
posterity, to move quickly, to build upon this achievement. A stable and revived
Lebanon is essential to all our hopes for peace in the region. The people of
Lebanon deserve the best efforts of the international community to turn the
nightmares of the past several years into a new dawn of hope.
But the opportunities for peace in the Middle East do not begin and end in
Lebanon. As we help Lebanon rebuild, we must also move to resolve the root
causes of conflict between the Arabs and Israelis.
This war in Lebanon has demonstrated many things, but two consequences are key
to the peace process:
First, the military losses of the P.L.O. have not diminished the yearning of the
Palestinian people for a just solution of their claims; and second, while
Israel's military success in Lebanon have demonstrated that its armed forces are
second to none in the region, they alone cannot bring just and lasting peace to
Israel and her neighbours.
The question now is how to reconcile Israel's legitimate security concerns with
the legitimate rights of the Palestinians. And that answer can only come at the
negotiating table. Each party must recognize that the outcome must be acceptable
to all and that true peace will require compromises by all.
So, tonight, I am calling for a fresh start. This is the moment for all those
directly concerned to get involved in - or lend their support to - a workable
basis for peace. The Camp David agreement remains the foundation of our policy.
Its language provides all parties with the leeway they need for successful
I call on Israel to make clear that the security for which she yearns can only
be achieved through genuine peace, a peace requiring magnanimity, vision and
I call on the Palestinian people to recognize that their own political
aspirations are inextricably bound to recognition of Israel's right to a secure
And I call on the Arab states to accept the reality of Israel -- and the reality
that peace and justice are to be gained only through hard, fair, direct
In making these calls upon others, I recognize that the United States has a
special responsibility. No other nation is in a position to deal with the key
parties to the conflict on the basis of trust and reliability.
The time has come for a new realism on the part of all the peoples of the Middle
East. The State of Israel is an accomplished fact; it deserves unchallenged
legitimacy within the community of nations. But Israel's legitimacy has thus far
been recognized by too few countries, and has been denied by every Arab state
except Egypt. Israel exists; it has a right to exist in peace behind secure and
defensible borders, and it has a right to demand of its neighbours that they
recognize those facts.
The war in Lebanon has demonstrated another reality in the region. The departure
of the Palestinians from Beirut dramatizes more than ever the homelessness of
the Palestinian people. Palestinians feel strongly that their cause is more than
a question of refugees. I agree.
The Camp David agreement recognized that fact when it spoke of "the legitimate
rights of the Palestinian people and their just requirements." For peace to
endure, it must involve all those who have been most deeply affected by the
conflict. Only through broader participation in the peace process - most
immediately by Jordan and by the Palestinians - will Israel be able to rest
confident in the knowledge that its security and integrity will be respected by
its neighbours. Only through the process of negotiation can all the nations of
the Middle East achieve a secure peace.
These, then, are our general goals. What are the specific new American positions
and why are we taking them?
In the Camp David talks thus far, both Israel and Egypt have felt free to
express openly their views as to what the outcome should be. Understandably,
their views have differed on many points.
The United States has thus far sought to play the role of mediator; we have
avoided public comment on the key issues. We have always recognized - and
continue to recognize - that only the voluntary agreement of those parties most
directly involved in the conflict can provide an enduring solution. But it has
become evident to me that some clearer sense of America's position on the key
issues is necessary to encourage wider support for the peace process.
First, as outlined in the Camp David accords, there must be a period of time
during which the Palestinian inhabitants of the West Bank and Gaza will have
full autonomy over their ' r own affairs. Due consideration must be given to the
principle of self-government by the inhabitants of the territories and to the
legitimate security concerns of the parties involved.
The purpose of the five-year period of transition which would begin after free
elections for a self-governing Palestinian authority is to prove to the
Palestinians that they can run their own affairs, and that such Palestinian
autonomy poses no threat to Israel's security.
The United States will not support the use of any additional land for the
purpose of settlements during the transition period. Indeed, the immediate
adoption of a settlement freeze by Israel, more than any other action, could
create the confidence needed for wider participation in these talks. Further
settlement activity is in no way necessary for the security of Israel and only
diminishes the confidence of the Arabs and a final outcome can be freely and
I want to make the American position clearly understood: the purpose of this
transition period is the peaceful and orderly transfer of domestic authority
from Israel to the Palestinian inhabitants of the West Bank and Gaza. At the
same time, such a transfer must not interfere with Israel's security
Beyond the transition period, as we look to the future of the West Bank and
Gaza, it is clear to me that peace cannot be achieved by the formation of an
independent Palestinian state in those territories. Nor is it achievable on the
basis of Israeli sovereignty or permanent control over the West Bank and Gaza.
So the United States will not support the establishment of an independent
Palestinian state in the West Bank and Gaza, and we will not support annexation
or permanent control by Israel.
There is, however, another way to peace. The final status of these lands must,
of course, be reached through the give-and-take of negotiations; but it is the
firm view of the United States that self-government by the Palestinians of the
West Bank and Gaza in association with Jordan offers the best chance for a
durable, just and lasting peace.
We base our approach squarely on the principle that the Arab-Israeli conflict
should be resolved through the negotiations involving an exchange of territory
for peace. This exchange is enshrined in United Nations Security Council
Resolution 242, which is, in turn, incorporated in all its parts in the Camp
David agreements. U.N. Resolution 242 remains wholly valid as the
foundation-stone of America's Middle East peace effort.
It is the United States' position that - in return for peace - the withdrawal
provision of Resolution 242 applies to all fronts, including the West Bank and
When the border is negotiated between Jordan and Israel, our view on the extent
to which Israel should be asked to give up territory will be heavily affected by
the extent of true peace and normalization and the security arrangements offered
Finally, we remain convinced that Jerusalem must remain undivided, but its final
status should be decided through negotiations.
In the course of the negotiations to come, the United States will support
positions that seem to us fair and reasonable compromises and likely to promote
a sound agreement. We will also put forward our own detailed proposals when we
believe they can be helpful. And, make no mistake, the United States will oppose
any proposal -from any party and at any point in the negotiating process - that
threatens the security of Israel. America's commitment to the security of Israel
is ironclad. And I might add, so is mine.
During the past few days, our ambassadors in Israel, Egypt, Jordan and Saudi
Arabia have presented to their host countries the proposal in full detail that I
have outlined here tonight.
I am convinced that these proposals can bring justice, bring security and bring
durability to an Arab-Israeli peace.
The United States will stand by these principles with total dedication. They are
fully consistent with Israel's security requirements and the aspirations of the
Palestinians. We will work hard to broaden participation at the peace table as
envisaged by the Camp David Accords. And I fervently hope that the Palestinians
and Jordan, with the support of their Arab colleagues, will accept this
Tragic turmoil in the Middle East runs back to the dawn of history. In our
modern day, conflict after conflict has taken its brutal toll there. In an age
of nuclear challenge and economic interdependence, such conflicts are a threat
to all the people of the world, not just the Middle East itself. It is time for
us all - in the Middle East and around the world -to call a halt to conflict,
hatred and prejudice; it is time for us all to launch a common effort for
reconstruction, peace and progress,
It has often been said - and regrettably too often been true - that the story of
the search for peace and justice in the Middle East is a tragedy of
In the aftermath of the settlement in Lebanon we now face an opportunity for a
broader peace. This time we must not let it slip from our grasp. We must look
beyond the difficulties and obstacles of the present and move with fairness and
resolve toward a brighter future. We owe it to ourselves - and to posterity - to
do no less. For if we miss this chance to make a fresh start, we may look back
on this moment from some later vantage point and realize how much that failure
cost us all.
These, then, are the principles upon which American policy toward the
Arab-Israeli conflict will be based. I have made a personal commitment to see
that they endure and, God willing, that they will come to be seen by all
reasonable, compassionate people as fair, achievable and in the interests of all
who wish to see peace in the Middle East.
Tonight, on the eve of what can be the dawning of new hope for the people of the
troubled Middle East - and for all the world's people who dream of a just and
peaceful future - I ask you, my fellow Americans, for your support and your
prayers in this great undertaking.